Meet Us Marshall J. She received several accolades during her undergraduate education including Outstanding Student of the College of Science and Engineering. After completing her training, Dr. She is married to Hal Boylston and has one son, William.
This chapter has been published in the book America to For ordering information please click here. He became a sailor, navigator, captain, and mapmaker, and after he dedicated his life to the audacious venture of leading an expedition to explore eastern Asia by sailing west. Finally in after the Spanish had defeated the Moors at Granada and expelled them and the Jews from Spain, King Fernando Ferdinand and Queen Isabel agreed to finance the bold venture.
Columbus told his crew they were going shorter distances than his own estimate so that they would not be so afraid; but modern scholars have calculated that his false reports were actually more accurate than his own estimates.
On October 10 the crews resisted going any further west; but Columbus promised them he would turn back if they did not see land in three days.
Two days later they landed on an island he called San Salvador, where they found a few naked Tainos Arawaks. Taino means "peace" or "friend. The natives had no iron, and one cut himself handling the wrong end of a sword.
Columbus observed that they were intelligent and believed they would be good Christians and servants. Noticing a golden ornament worn on a nose, he tried to ask them where they found the gold.
Columbus forbade his crew from taking things of value from them. On October 14 he took seven of Spanish scene to meet the doctor with him to learn his language, and he wrote in his logbook that fifty of his men could easily subjugate them.
Columbus explored and claimed many islands.
Some women wore a piece of cotton over their genitals, but most were naked. Many inhabitants ran away when they saw the Spaniards coming.
From Cuba they took a dozen people, including a man who wanted to be with his family. After one of their interpreters told the fleeing natives that the Christians had come from the sky, they were given hospitality. The local cacique chief Guacanagari was carried in a litter and shared with his tribe the food they gave him.
On December 24 while Columbus was resting, his flagship Santa Maria was wrecked on a reef; but the natives helped his men salvage all they could.
Columbus named the new settlement Navidad, and 39 of his men volunteered to stay there while he returned to Spain. Efforts were being made to find gold, and they were warned about the aggressive Caribs, whom they believed were cannibals.
Before they departed, a group of Indians charged seven Spaniards, who wounded two of them before the fifty-five natives fled. Columbus went northeast and found favorable winds; but a storm near the Azores caused them to pray and promise pilgrimages.
Half his men on the pilgrimage, dressed only in shirts, were captured by the Portuguese; but Columbus managed to get them back and was received by King Joao II at Lisbon before he returned triumphantly to the Spanish court at Barcelona.
According to their agreement, Columbus was recognized as viceroy over the lands he discovered. He promised that they would bring back gold, spices, cotton, mastic, aloes, and slaves. A large expedition with seventeen ships and at least 1, men was organized.
On the second voyage Columbus explored the leeward islands Antilleswhere they found the Caribs treated women cruelly and slaughtered and ate men. When they got back to Navidad, they learned that all the Christians were dead: Guacanagari claimed that he had been wounded, though some doubted his injury.
He sent Alonso de Ojeda Hojeda with fourteen men to look for gold at Cibao. Captain Antonio de Torres took twelve ships back to Castile with many requests by Columbus.
While the Admiral was visiting the gold fields discovered by Ojeda, a plot to overthrow him was organized by Bernal de Pisa, who was caught and imprisoned. The Christians learned that the Tainos had no private property, as they freely took things from each other and shared everything in common.
Many Christians had difficulty adjusting to the tropical diet and became sick; so Columbus left men on the island and sent the rest back to Castile. He put his brother Diego Colon in charge of the council and went off to explore Jamaica and Cuba. Pedro Margarit, instead of policing the island, let many factions and quarrels spring up in Isabela, where the council would not let him take control.
Margarit took a ship back to Castile, allowing the Spaniards to rob and seize whatever women they pleased. In response to these crimes the Magdalena cacique Guatigana executed ten Christians and burned a house with forty sick men.
When Columbus came back, he had some of Guatigana's chiefs arrested and sent to Spain; others were punished for having killed Christians. Guacanagari remained loyal to Columbus and asked him to punish Caonabo and Behechio for taking his women.
In the Admiral prepared Christians with twenty horses and hunting dogs for war against aboutTainos. The horses and dogs caused the natives to flee, and many were killed. Most of those captured were executed except for Caonabo and his family; he had been captured earlier by Ojeda, who had tricked him by giving him shiny manacles.La Roja: How Soccer Conquered Spain and How Spanish Soccer Conquered the World [Jimmy Burns] on monstermanfilm.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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