History The Ottoman Empire: The lands under Ottoman rule stretched from the heart of Central Europe to the deserts of Arabia. In nearly every respect, the Ottoman Empire was strong and well-organized.
Suleiman during the Siege of Rhodes in Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman began a series of military conquests, eventually suppressing a revolt led by the Ottoman-appointed governor of Damascus in Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary —something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve because of John Hunyadi 's strong defense in the region.
Its capture was vital in removing the Hungarians and Croats who, following the defeats of the AlbaniansBosniaksBulgariansByzantines and the Serbsremained the only formidable force who could block further Ottoman gains in Europe.
Suleiman encircled Belgrade and began a series of heavy bombardments from an island in the Danube. Belgrade, with a garrison of only men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, fell in August As the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Constantinople was to note, "The capture of Belgrade was at the origin of the dramatic events which engulfed Hungary.
It led to the death of King Louisthe capture of Budathe occupation of Transylvaniathe ruin of a flourishing kingdom and the fear of neighboring nations that they would suffer the same fate In the summer oftaking advantage of the large navy he inherited from his father, Suleiman dispatched an armada of some ships towards Rhodes, while personally leading an army ofacross Asia Minor to a point opposite the island itself.
Following the brutal five-month Siege of RhodesRhodes capitulated and Suleiman allowed the Knights of Rhodes to depart.
In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed, and the Ottoman Empire became the preeminent power in Central Europe.
Reacting inSuleiman marched through the valley of the Danube and regained control of Buda; in the following autumn, his forces laid siege to Vienna. This was to be the Ottoman Empire's most ambitious expedition and the apogee of its drive to the West.
In both cases, the Ottoman army was plagued by bad weather, forcing them to leave behind essential siege equipment, and was hobbled by overstretched supply lines. In the Habsburgs attempted to lay siege to Buda but were repulsed, and more Habsburg fortresses were captured by the Ottomans in two consecutive campaigns in and as a result,  Ferdinand and Charles were forced to conclude a humiliating five-year treaty with Suleiman.
Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control.
Of more symbolic importance, the treaty referred to Charles V not as 'Emperor' but as the 'King of Spain', leading Suleiman to identify as the true 'Caesar'. Ottoman—Safavid War —55 Miniature depicting Suleiman marching with an army in Nakhchivansummer As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever-present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia.
Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with an adherent of the Shah, and second, the governor of Bitlis had defected and sworn allegiance to the Safavids.
Having joined Ibrahim inSuleiman made a push towards Persia, only to find the Shah sacrificing territory instead of facing a pitched battle, resorting to harassment of the Ottoman army as it proceeded along the harsh interior.
As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, using scorched earth tactics in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus.
Having initially lost territories in Erzurum to the Shah's son, Suleiman retaliated by recapturing Erzurum, crossing the Upper Euphrates and laying waste to parts of Persia.
The Shah's army continued its strategy of avoiding the Ottomans, leading to a stalemate from which neither army made any significant gain.
Ina settlement was signed which was to conclude Suleiman's Asian campaigns.In the 16th century, the printing press was banned in the Ottoman empire for printing in Arabic and Turkish.
This ban had been in place since the mid 's. The output of the printing presses in the West, meanwhile, is estimated to reached 20 M.
Fulani empire: Fulani empire, Muslim theocracy of the Western Sudan that flourished in the 19th century. The Fulani, a people of obscure origins, expanded eastward from Futa Toro in Lower Senegal in the 14th century.
By the 16th century they had established themselves at . During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of monstermanfilm.comature: General Assembly.
The Ottoman Empire also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan.
ملک وسیعالفضای ایران The Expansive Realm of Iran; مملکت ایران The Country of Iran; The Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas the Great. Venice - History: Uniquely among Italy’s chief cities, Venice came into being after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.
The Lombard hordes, whose incursions into northern Italy began in ad , drove great numbers of mainlanders onto the islands of the lagoon, previously the homes of itinerant fishermen and salt workers. The isolated communities, literally islands of Veneto-Byzantine.