Maria Montessori's discovery of what she referred to as "the child's true normal nature" in which happened in the process of her experimental observation of young children given freedom in an environment prepared with materials designed for their self-directed learning activity. Waldorf education Waldorf education also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Vitruvius gives these terms in the sequence firmitas, utilitas, venustas, whereas both Alberti and, following him, the 16th-century Venetian architect and theorist Andrea Palladio reverse the order of the first two.
But it does seem worth noting that venustas generally comes last, implying that firmitas and utilitas are to be regarded as essential logical prerequisites of architectural beauty. On the other hand, the practical advantages, in academic treatisesof giving priority to venustas are evident.
The growing emphasis on aestheticscombined with developments in psychology and the influence of art-historical methods, added weight to this argument, while the corresponding independence of scientific techniques of structural and spatial analysis led many teachers of architecture to consider utilitas and firmitas as totally separate academic disciplines.
Important exceptions can be found to this generalization. Alberti not only avoids the erotic implications of the term venustas but, by subdividing amoenitas into pulchritudo and ornamentum, gives far more precise indications as to the type of visual satisfaction that architecture should provide.
Pulchritudo, he asserts, is derived from harmonious proportions that are comparable to those that exist in music and are the essence of the pleasure created by architecture.
Both pulchritudo and ornamentum were thus related to function and environment in that, ideally, they were governed by a sense of decorumand, since the etymological roots of both decoration and decorum are the same, it will be understood why, beforethe term decoration had in both English and French a far less superficial architectural implication than it often does today.
After the German philosopher and educator Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten had introduced the neologism aesthetics aboutthe visual merits of all artifacts tended to be assessed more subjectively than objectively, and, in the criticism of all those sensory stimuli that, for want of a better term, critics somewhat indiscriminately lumped together as the fine arts, the visual criteria were extended to include not only beauty but also sublimity, picturesqueness, and even ugliness.
Now it is clear that, once ugliness is equated with beauty, both terms being contradictory become virtually meaningless. But ugliness, after the midth century, was not only one of the most important themes of many popular dramas and novels. Ugliness was also often considered the most appropriate architectural expression for all sorts of virtues—especially those of manliness, sincerity, and so on.
Beforearchitects had expressed these qualities more subtly e.
In later years, when the value of proportion and ornament became highly controversial, architectural theorists tended to avoid committing themselves to any criteria that might be subsumed under the heading venustas. Our ultimate goal, therefore, was the composite but inseparable work of art, the great building, in which the old dividing-line between monumental and decorative elements would have disappeared for ever.
The idea was accepted in most schools of architecture by the midth century, but one may question whether it fully justified the expectations of its protagonists, once it had been exemplified and proliferated in so many urban environments. Utilitas The notion that a building is defective unless the spaces provided are adequate and appropriate for their intended usage would seem obvious.
Yet the statement itself has been a source of controversy since the s. The main reasons for the controversy are: Second, edifices are frequently used for purposes other than those for which they were originally planned. No better example could be found than the evolution of parliamentary systems.
The French system, created concurrently with the Greek and Roman revivals, was based on the concept of legislatures addressed by orators, and its environment was that of an antique theatre.
In the former system the seating was designed in accordance with the liturgical requirements of a Christian church; in the latter, with the evolution of Greek drama. Neither had anything to do with preconceived notions regarding the most effective environment for parliamentary debate, yet both have had divergent influences on constitutional procedures, thereby deeply affecting the whole theory of government.
The emotional effect of transitions from spacious to constricted volumes and vice versa transcends in architectural importance the statistical evaluation of floor areas; a fact which explains the attractiveness of theories that have tacitly adopted places of worship as spatial paradigms and bolstered their arguments by historical reference to temples and churches.
This bias is perceptible not only in the most influential theories enunciated before when the prototypes were either primeval, antique, or medieval but also in the most influential ideas promulgated by such great architectural leaders of the 20th century as Frank Lloyd Wright and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
The idealization of monumental single-cell spaces is sometimes justified, but the difficulty of evolving theories of planning by the use of historical prototypes should be emphasized.
It is in this branch of architectural theory that the influences of historicism have been most insidiousprecisely because they are less obvious here than in systems of construction, of proportions, and of ornamentation. Firmitas Two plausible reasons can be given for according logical primacy in the Vitruvian triad to firmitas.
This idea was expressed with characteristic lapidary vigour by the 20th-century French architect Auguste Perret when he asserted that architecture is the art of organizing space; but it is by construction that it expresses itself…Functions, customs, and building regulations and fashions impose conditions which are only transitory.
Some later architectural theorists have become so concerned with the rapid obsolescence of modern buildings that they have envisaged edifices that express the temporary nature of these transitory qualities and are therefore built in such a way as to enable the structures themselves to be discarded completely after a few years.
On the other hand since the economic feasibility of this technique is questionablethere are still many architects who believe in the inevitability of permanent buildings and who therefore hold views more compatible with this belief. From the time of the Renaissance to the midth century—as also before the decline of the ancient Roman Empire on which the culture of this era was modelled—little concern seems to have been given to the idea that there was any virtue in manifesting the actual structural system of a building.
Theoretical pronouncements on this matter depended of course on the architectural traditions of each country. In Italy where the traditional technique of building had, even during the Middle Agesassumed that structure was independent of appearance and where it was common to complete a building in brick before adding its marble facades the idea that there could be any theoretical dilemma regarding the unison between these two elements was virtually inconceivable.
It was in this era that the term daring which Ruskin had frequently used with reference to the paintings of the English Romantic artist J. Turner became popular as a laudatory epithet, thereby indicating an ideal of structural expression that was to be increasingly exploited when steel and reinforced concrete permitted higher buildings with fewer and more slender supports.
But the most controversial issue concerning firmitas in the 19th century—which also arose through the influence of the Gothic Revival movement—concerned the extent to which a building should manifest its structural system and the materials used.Functionalism and Education Essay Functionalism and Education Evaluate Functionalists approach to education Functionalists believe that the educational system is a positive educational experience, which benefits both children and society.
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The Chicago School of Functionalism was a major revolutionary force in psychology and philosophy.
Its stunningly original use of evolutionary biology and experimental psychology created a novel pragmatic approach to the explanation of human. Published: Mon, 5 Dec This essay shows a history of functionalism, its principles and contributions.
It includes four stages of psychology in the United States, development of functionalism and notable functionalists focusing on Willam James. A suggested template for the Methods in Context Question on one of the AQA’s (1)education and methods in context sample exam papers – the template should work for most Method in Context questions, but it won’t work for all Continue reading →.
Extracts from this document Introduction.
Outline and evaluate the interactionist view of education (40 marks) Interactionism is a micro theory that focuses on the interactions that take place between people on a daily basis. Education is a topic that has been implemented on our generation more than ever before.
However, it is not for the grades, degree or the income that education should be important to us.
Although all of these theories are important to education and society, I have chosen to focus my research or theoretical perspective on functionalism also including the effects functionalism and education. Functionalism Theory of Education - There are three main theoretical perspectives (or theories) that represent the views of sociologist and educators, these views are the conflict perspective, symbolic interactions, and functionalism. Many students find essay writing to be an especially daunting task. Depending on the essay topic, research can take anywhere from a few hours to several days and .