As a background study, we recommend that you first review our discussion of the Pre-Reformation History of the Bible from 1, B. With the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, Wycliffe produced dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe.
The ideas of this one man began to change the religious, political and social norms of the 16th century and continue to unto this vary day. He may be the singular most important figure in Western religious culture to this day. Unlike many historical figures that came from prosperous families or nobility which then rose to power themselves, Martin Luther was proud of having been born to a low income family.
No matter to what elevation he would raise to, he never considered himself a reformer but a man of the people.
Hence most of his writing was written in German to gain a wider audience.
Also unlike many peasants of his time Luther would go on to be college educated. In he would graduate from Erfurt College with a degree in liberal arts. Anne Patron saint of miners that if she saved him he would become a monk. No form of penance was too extreme and he rigorously sought after every form of spiritual discipline and purity, all to no avail.
No matter how persistent he was in his endeavors, he never felt justified in Gods eyes. Always the sinner and never the saint Luther began to search the Bible and the Church rigorously for answers.
In Luther embarked on a journey to Rome with another of the friars regarding business of the order. Much like pilgrims to this day, he ascended the Scala Sancta to free his grandfather from purgatory.
Not only was the city riddled with prostitutes, debauchery, and abundant vanity but it was also a very spiritual devoid place for him. Even the Italian priests would change the words of the mass to mock the transubstantiation in Latin.
He received the fifty gulden from Elector Frederick the Wise with the condition that he would remain as professor of biblical studies for the rest of his life. The Catholic Church would sell special parchments that allowed for the remission of past, present or even future sins.
Here in lied a fundamental difference between Luther and the powerful institution of the Catholic Church. The Church had come to rely on tradition and Luther believed that the Church should be subject to the scriptures.
Hence, his theory that scripture should interpret scripture and the Church should not interpret scripture was born. This would become the battle cry of the soon to come Protestant Church.
On October 31st,Luther first came onto the scene that would inevitably thrust him into a world of controversy. In his first attack on the Catholic Churches policies, he nailed his 95 thesis to the door of the castle church at Wittenberg.
His action, as such, was neither unprecedented nor revolutionary; but coming when it did, it raised ultimate and unavoidable questions as to the character and meaning of the Christian religion, and so led to that crisis which released the pent-up forces of reform.
For the sake of Scripture we should reject pope and councils. This was the hallmark of what would become the Protestant reformation. Luther became more and more emboldened as he gained support of the common man and nobility within his native land of Germany. Luther himself was given two months to recant or be excommunicated.
Luther ceremoniously burned the books of canon law, papal decretals, and a copy of the papal bull on a bonfire in the meadow that ran to the river Elbe from the walls of Wittenberg. He watched them turn into ashes and walked away.
His books would soon spread all across Europe. Luther was not alone in his fight however. In when the papal bull was issued that excommunicated Luther and called for the authorities of the land to arrest him they failed to act.
The Churches demands had proven to fall upon deaf ears.
When the local authorities failed to respond to the papal bull the edict went out to put Luther under the ban of the Empire. The elector of the University and the princes of Germany failed to do anything to implement it. When Frederick University Elector passed away inhis brother John, who continued to protect Luther also ignored the papal bull.
Inwhen the Diet of Augsberg ordered a restoration of the traditional Church throughout the Empire and threatened all who refused to obey with force, the Elector John refused to obey the order and joined with other princes in the formation of what was in effect a league of Protestant rulers.
Often times his literature was mistaken for other purposes. During the early reformation the biggest revolt was not the Knights war but the Peasants rebellion.
The rebellion was directed against attempts by money-poor lords, lay and ecclesiastical, to increase manorial dues. It lacked coordination and effective military organization and was cruelly put down.
The rebellion centered not in the East where serfdom was most complete but occurred in the south and southwest, where the peasantries were beginning to become free landowning farmers. The imaginary pilgrimages showed no sign of dying.The Protestant Reformation Research Paper Essay No conversation can begin with the word or phrase religious reformation, protestant, peasant rebellion, crusades, or even holocaust without owing a debt to one man, that man’s name is Martin Luther - The Protestant .
Protestant Reformation. Get Medieval facts, information and history about Protestant Reformation and the philosophy of the Middle Ages. Fast and accurate facts about Protestant Reformation. A consideration of the Protestant Reformation and the Bible and its relationship to the development of the idea of the Bible alone.
Lecture 3: The Protestant Reformation: Arise, O Lord, and judge Thy cause. A wild boar has invaded Thy vineyard. Arise, O Peter, and consider the case of the Holy Roman Church, the mother of all churches, consecrated by thy blood.
Before looking into Luther's use of printing, a preliminary concern is the literacy demographics of Germans at the time of the Reformation. In Germany, overall literacy has been estimated to be as low as five percent in rural areas, with the urban literacy peaking at thirty percent.
English Bible History: Discover the fascinating history of how we got the Bible in the English language, from Wycliffe, Tyndale, Luther, to King Henry VIII and King James.